The Wife of Pontius Pilate: Women in the Bible

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Herod Antipas: 'that fox' as Jesus called him

Herod Antipas 
Politics in the time of Jesus

SPQR Senatus Populusque Romanus: the Senate and People of Rome

The Trial of Jesus
Pontius Pilate and Herod

Pontius Pilate washes his hands to absolve himself from condemning Jesus to death

Condemned
Death Sentence for Jesus

Crucifixion, by Matthias Gruenwald

Crucifixion
Archaeological evidence

Detail of Albrecht Durer portrait

Jesus Christ
His life, death & teachings

 Maps of Galilee, Jerusalem, Samaria and Judaea at the time of Jesus

Maps of Judea & Galilee

 


Dreams in the gospels

The Three Wise Men, the Magi follow the Star of Bethlehem

Warning to the Magi

A bright star in the night sky

Warning to Joseph at Nazareth

 


 

 


 




 

 


 

 

 


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Life of Jesus Christ

Detail of Albrecht Durer portrait

what really happened

historical background

 

She  warned, he  didn't  listen             

Names in the Bible often tell us something about the person:
This woman is nameless; she appears only briefly in one of the gospels, Matthew's. 

 In later centuries she was called Claudia Procula, but it is impossible to tell whether this was her real name or an invented one.

'Pontius' is a variant on the Latin word 'pons', meaning 'bridge'. It may also have been a family name linked to the ancient Roman province of Pontus in Asia Minor - at the eastern end of the Black Sea. The origin of 'Pilate' is unknown. A similar Latin word is 'pilum', or javelin.

She was not named in Matthew's gospel because naming a person makes them real and individual, and that was not the purpose of the gospel writer. To him she was a symbol or a literary device rather than a real person - though she obviously existed.

Portrait of a Roman woman, by Henryk SiemiradzkiThe writer of Matthew's gospel wanted his listener/reader to focus on the incident and what it showed about Pilate, rather than on the person who was Pilate's wife.

Main themes in this incident

  • Messages from God. People in the ancient world were aware of the subconscious. They believed dreams could carry a significant message from God - or in the case of this Roman woman, from 'the gods'.

  • We should listen for God's voice in whatever guise it takes. Pilate's wife called Jesus 'this innocent man'.  Through her, God gave Pilate a chance to do the right thing.  He did not.

  • Listen to your own conscience. Pilate acted as he did because he cared so much about his Roman masters' opinion. Yet for two thousand years he has been held in contempt by the whole Christian world for his fateful decision to condemn Jesus.


The wife of Pontius Pilate advises her husbandThe story in Matthew's gospel

During  the trial of Jesus, Matthew mentions the wife of Pontius Pilate.  We know very little about her except that she was high-born, Roman, well-educated and wealthy - and the wife of the Roman governor at the time of Jesus' death. 

On the morning of the trial of Jesus, she sent an urgent message to her husband: 'I had a troubling dream. Do not have anything to do with this man.' Pilate ignored his wife's advice and condemned Jesus to death, making his name infamous. 


Who was Pilate?

He was a very political man, always concerned about Rome's opinion of him. His patron in Rome was Sejanus, who virtually governed Rome after the Emperor Tiberius retired to his villa at Capri. Pilate would keep his job only as long as he delivered relative peace and stability in the province he governed.

Judea was a difficult, rebellious part of the Roman Empire, and Pilate's job was far from easy. Commentators call him cruel and oppressive, but this fails to take into account the turbulence of Jerusalem, especially at a time of one of the great festivals, when the city was jam-packed with hundreds of thousands of pilgrims. Rebellion was a constant threat, and Pilate no doubt saw Jesus of Nazareth as a potential rebel, who must be neutralized as quickly as possible.

'Ecce Homo' (Behold the Man), Antonio Ciseri

 

What was Pilate's relationship with his wife? 

He travelled constantly, keeping an eye of each area of Judea, and it seems that his wife travelled with him. This may show something of the closeness of their relationship, since life in the administrative center of Caesarea would certainly have been more comfortable for her. 

Perhaps he was accustomed to seek out her advice on difficult matters; educated Roman women were often quite powerful figures behind the scenes - think of Livia's relationship with her husband Augustus. Pilate's wife is the only person recorded who appealed the decision to condemn Jesus.  

You can read the verse in Matthew's gospel in a negative way, seeing Pilate's attitude as dismissive, patronising, impatient. 

But is could also show a man who was affectionate, tring to reassure his wife in what was a combustible situation that everything would be alright. Who knows with a husband and wife?   

 

Messages in Dreams and Omens 

'Ecce Homo' (Behold the Man), Antonio Ciseri, detail of painting showing Pontius Pilate presenting Jesus to the crowd. Detail shows his wife as she realizes her advice will be rejectedWhen she did appeal her husband's decision, she quoted a terrible dream she had the previous night. This dream frightened and bewildered her so much that she felt impelled to act on it.

Dreams were given great significance in the ancient world, more so than they are now. Usually they were seen as warnings against some danger, or as prompts sent by God to persuade a person to take a particular course of action.

The New Testament records several dreams that changed the course of history:

  • the dream of the Magi, warning them not to return to Herod (Matthew 2:12)

  • the dream of Joseph of Nazareth, warning him to flee to Egypt (Matthew 2:13)

  • the dream telling Joseph to return from Egypt and settle in Galilee (Matthew 2:19 and 2:22)

All of these dreams appear in the gospel of Matthew, who was writing for a Greek, Jewish and Christian audience. In his own way he knew about the promptings of the subconscious.

 

The Ara Pacis, an altar to Peace built by the Emperor Augustus; this was newly built at the time that Priscilla was living in Rome; she would have seen this beautiful structure

The Ara Pacis, an altar to Peace built by the Emperor Augustus. 
This was newly built at the time of Jesus' death. 
The wife of Pilate must have seen this shrine, 
and even attended a religious sacrifice there.

 

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The Dream of Pilate's Wife

So why is the incident even mentioned?

Gold crescent pendant from the Roman period

For jewelry worn by rich Roman women, see    Ancient Jewelry

Perhaps her dream is a warning to Pilate from someone he knows and trusts. He ignores it, and therefore the gospel implies that, coming from her, he was at fault when he took no notice of it. In much the same way, Calpurnia is supposed to have warned Julius Caesar not to go to the Senate on the Ides of March. Both stories show a man who will not even take advice from a tursted person. The sin of pride is therefore worse.

Keep in mind that the gospel writers were going out of their way to present the Roman authorities in a good light. This was sensible political policy at the time, since the gospels were written down not long after the disasterous rebellion against Rome, in which a good proportion of the Jewish population were annhilated. It was sensible (if you wanted to survive) to present the Roman authorities at the time of Jesus' death in a good light, and cast the blame on the Jewish hierarchy. This was only prudent. But even so, the gospel writers would not concede that Pilate was blameless. They refused to exonerate him from guilt.

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PILATE'S WIFE
by Carol Ann Duffy

Firstly, his hands — a woman's. Softer than mine,
with pearly nails, like shells from Galilee.
Indolent hands. Camp hands that clapped for grapes.
Their pale, mothy touch made me flinch. Pontius.

I longed for Rome, home, someone else. When the Nazarene
entered Jerusalem, my maid and I crept out,
bored stiff, disguised, and joined the frenzied crowd.
I tripped, clutched the bridle of an ***, looked up

and there he was. His face? Ugly. Talented.
He looked at me. I mean he looked at me. My God.
His eyes were eyes to die for. Then he was gone,
his rough men shouldering a pathway to the gates.

The night before his trial, I dreamt of him.
His brown hands touched me. Then it hurt.
Then blood. I saw that each tough palm was skewered
by a nail. I woke up, sweating, sexual, terrified.

Leave him alone. I sent a warning note, then quickly dressed.
When I arrived, the Nazarene was crowned with thorns.
The crowd was baying for Barabbas. Pilate saw me,
looked away, then carefully turned up his sleeves
and slowly washed his useless, perfumed hands.
They seized the prophet then and dragged him out,
up to the Place of Skulls. My maid knows all the rest.
Was he God? Of course not. Pilate believed he was.

Marble bust of a Roman matron


ACTIVITIES AND QUESTIONS

Imaginative reconstruction 
Scene from the film 'The Passion of the Christ', with Jesus being presented to the crowd by Pontius Pilate Imagine that you are a friend of Pilate's wife, or her maidservant. When her message is ignored, Pilate's wife hurries to the room where the seat of judgment is. You accompany her. You catch a glimpse of the condemned man Jesus as he is led away. Describe

  •  what he looks like

  • what he says, and what the people around him say: onlookers, soldiers, etc.

  • your immediate response: what do you do and say?

  • your own private emotions when you realize what is happening

  • your thoughts a few days later, after he has been horribly killed.

Present these descriptions and responses in the form of a journal entry, or tell the group or a learning partner about your imagined experience. 

If you are interested in the way that modern films present people from the New Testament, look at 
Modern Images of Jesus
and 
Modern Images of Mary
 

Women in films
Identify recent films about the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth.
What methods has the film used to present the story of Jesus? What was your response to these films? Favorable, unfavorable or both? Explain.

 

Dozens of extra ideas at Activities for Bible Study Groups and Schools

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RELATED SITES - stories, pictures, ideas

Clothes she wore, houses she lived in - CLOTHES AND HOUSES 

Crucifixion - ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

What rich women wore - ANCIENT JEWELRY

Jerusalem at the time of Jesus' death - HEROD'S JERUSALEM

Trial of Jesus - CAIPHAS' PALACE 

JERUSALEM MAPS

JERUSALEM PHOTOS

 

Read about more fascinating women of the Bible  

Pontius Pilate, from a modern movie

 

A real Roman couple: Terentius Neo of Pompeii, who lived just a few years later than Pontius Pilate and his wife

  

 

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Bible Study Resource, Women in the Bible: Wife of Pontius Pilate, the trial, her dream, her warning

 

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Copyright 2006 Elizabeth Fletcher