Bathsheba, information about the world she lived in

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Tamara Lempicka, detail of painting

Bad Bible Women: Delilah
One of the Bible's Top Ten Bad Women

Detail from the painting 'The Queen of Sheba visits King Solomon'

King Solomon's Palace
Where the royal women lived with their children

David holds up the head of Goliath, painting by Caravaggio

Bible People: David
King David, the Flawed Hero

Face of a wealthy aristocrat, from the Fayum coffin portraits

Bible People: Solomon
Wise King? Foolish Man? Solomon's Story

Reconstruction of an ancient house with rooftop space for work and leisure

Bible Architecture: Houses
Bathing on the Roof - Houses in ancient Israel


 


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Bathsheba's world

The story of Bathsheba takes place within a royal court. Her first husband Uriah is from an aristocratic military family with a history of service to the king. After he is murdered by David's order she moves easily into the life of the royal harem, which she dominated.

Saul, David and Solomon

The reigns of Saul, David and Solomon cover the period from about 1020BC until about 922BC, ending with the death of Solomon. During these years Israel experienced a brief period of independence from  the great foreign powers surrounding it. 

Saul was the first leader of this period. He fought to gain independence from the Philistines who had superior technology, fortified positions and better organization, all of which gave them the edge over the Hebrew tribal groups.

With the support of the prophet Samuel who gave him religious and psychological backing, Saul was at first victorious. However, he may have been mentally unstable and could not count on consistent loyalty from his followers - Statue of David by Michelangelo, detail of the head the young David for one undermined Saul's authority. Thus he was not able to gain a complete victory over the Philistines, and in a battle with them Saul was defeated and his  favorite son Jonathan killed. Saul committed suicide.

David, waiting in the wings, took over as leader of the Israelite people. For a short version of David's story, see Bible People: David. He was a subtle, brilliant and unscrupulous man: a military leader, poet, musician, schemer and diplomat. Much of his reign was spent in fighting to gain territory and incorporate newly acquired lands into the kingdom of Israel. 

David used a combination of military power and diplomacy to lessen the threat of the Philistines and to take over Canaanite towns. At certain times in his reign he held the territories of Ammon, Moab, Edom, west of the Jordan, and Damascus. He made treaties with regions he did not conquer.

Jerusalem becomes the capital

The extension of territory demanded a control center and Jerusalem soon replaced Hebron as the capital of David's kingdom. Here he established a religious, political and military center, so that Jerusalem became the unifying focus for the Israelites.Map of Canaan/Israel, as divided among the Twelve Tribes

For maps of Judah and Jerusalem during David's reign, see Bible Maps

Under Solomon, son of Bathsheba and David, Israel became an established kingdom, with a codified system of laws, a governing bureaucracy, and extensive foreign connections. Trade was promoted, mineral wealth was exploited, and the army was enlarged and modernized.

The notion of the ‘wisdom of Solomon’ probably arose from the heightened intellectualism at the court of Solomon: literature, historical chronicles and poetry flourished. We should thank the court recorders for the stories from this period - but be aware of their bias as well.

The loose tribal confederation that had governed the Jewish people since the original settlement in Canaan (by Abraham and Sarah) was replaced by

  • a centralized government located in Jerusalem

  • a dynastic monarchy, kingship now passing from father to son - previously it had been by popular acclamation.

 

Bathsheba's Life in the Royal Harem

There is a lot of Hollywood nonsense about harems - films imply they were lurid sinks of seduction and sex. This is a male fantasy. It was not the reality.

19th century painting of women in a harem

Power struggles in the harem were as common 
as they were in the larger world of men

The harem was a separate area for women and children in any house where there were a number of wives with children. The husband visited, but it was essentially the domain of women. 

At the time that Bathsheba lived, women and their children usually occupied small individual rooms off a central courtyard. They were busy, devoted, and self-absorbed. They entertained, fed, reporduced and cared for themselves and their children. It was a self-contained world. There was constant movement, noise, activity. 

Boys like Solomon lived in the harem with their mother when they were small. Girls lived there all their lives - though of course they moved from one harem to another when they married.

Aerial photograph of the palace of Knossos, showing the layout of royal living quarters

Aerial photograph of the palace of Knossos 
the royal living quarters were at right; 
David's palace was smaller but probably had a similar plan

No woman was ever lonely, but at the same time there was fierce rivalry: 

  • for the attention of the husband who in this case was a king, and 

  • for preferment for her own children. 

The future tribal or family leader was born in this harem, but the eldest son could not be sure of inheriting the leadership: a clever boy might be preferred to a less able older brother, or he might outwit his rivals as Solomon did. 

 

 

 

Women's Lives at that time

Before this, land ownership had been common at all economic levels. Almost all family groups had owned some land. Now, however, ownership was increasingly concentrated in the hands of the royal family, nobles and priests.  Peasant men and women were often dispossessed of land their families had held for many generations.
    - Large estates, not smallholdings, became the norm
    - Tenant faming became more and more common
    - Day-laboring and short-term employment meant a loss of financial security
    - Slavery for debt became common.

Group of peasant women harvesting a grain crop

The people most affected were those who were neither rich nor poor. This large group was made up of peasant farming families who occupied a status loosely equivalent to the lower middle-class in modern society. Land was still the basis of wealth, and agriculture was still the mainstay of the economy, but ordinary people who produced the nation's  food were not as well off as they had been. Their surplus output now supported a large, non-producing population, including the army, the civil bureaucrats and the official priesthood.

Map of Jerusalem at the time of King David

A map of Jerusalem at the time of King David. 
The small area in the lower right of the map is Jebus, the fortress captured by David. The walled area above is a large flat rock on which the city of Jerusalem grew. The house of Uriah and the palace of David may have been in the upper area.

Jerusalem dominated the thinking and the government of Israel, and inevitably small villages became less important.  So the focus of power moved away from the family unit, based in the village, towards the public, urban sphere. This sphere was limited almost entirely to men. It included
    -  the army, which became larger and more organized, no longer a voluntary tribal militia
    -  the state bureaucracy which controlled tax, legislation and administration
    -  the religious bureaucracy, including the priesthood.
All of these were centered in Jerusalem and were limited to males. For the first time, women found themselves having very little say in the public life of the state.

For additional information on the lives of women in the Bible, see the links to 

Family, Work and Religion: the tribe, the family, slaves, women's tasks, beliefs

Milestones in a Woman's Life: Puberty, menstruation, marriage, childbirth, death, burials

Clothing and Housing : ancient fabric, weaving, different styles for rich and poor

 

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